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秦始皇 Qinshihuang, The First Emperor in Chinese History

http://www.chinesecio.com 2010年11月05日 09:03 网络孔子学院

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公元 前770年才被封为中国西部一个诸侯国,疆域较小,国力不盛,始终被中原诸侯看不起。但自从实行了商鞅变法后,国力日盛,很快成为战国七雄中的强国。秦王嬴政(公元前259年—公元前210年)当政以后,发动了大规模 战争

。从公元前230年开始,历时10年,先后灭了韩、赵、魏、楚、燕、齐,于公元前221年统一

了六国。嬴政幻想秦的统治能永远 继续下去,自称“始皇帝”,他的后代 称二世、三世,以至千万世。因此,历史 上称嬴政为秦始皇。


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It was not until 770 BC that the State of Qin came into existence as one of the vassal states in western China. Later, it emerged as one of the seven most powerful states in China, assisted by Shang Yang's reform. King Ying Zheng (259 - 210 BC) embarked on a campaign of expansion. In the space of only ten years, from 230 BC, Qin vanquished Han, Zhao, Wei, Chu, Yan and Qi one after another, and united the whole of China in 221 BC. Ying Zheng called himself "the First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty"(Qinshihuang).

秦始皇统一后,采取了许多巩固统一的措施


Qinshihuang enacted a sweeping series of reforms to consolidate his rule.

政治上在中央,设置了丞相、御史大夫、太尉等职。丞相帮助皇帝处理全国的政务,御史大夫负责监察百官,太尉管理军事,都由皇帝任免。在地方,实行郡县制度,全国划分为36郡(后来增到40多个郡),郡下设县。长官称郡守和县令,也都由皇帝直接任免,负责管理人民。这样,皇帝把统治全国各地的权力牢牢控制在自己手里。
The government was presided over by a prime minister. The Yushidafu supervised the bureaucracy, and the Taiwei was commander-in-chief of the army. They were all appointed and removed by the emperor himself. The whole country was divided into 36 prefectures (later increased to more than 40), which were in turn divided into counties. The magistrates of the prefectures and counties were also directly appointed and removed by the emperor.

经济上首先统一度量衡。战国时期,各国的度量衡都不一样,秦始皇统一度量衡,使长度、容量、重量,都有了统一的标准 ,促进了经济的发展

。秦朝还统一了货币 。秦政府规定把秦国的圆形方孔钱,作为统一的货币,通行全国。这对促进各民族各地区的经济交流 ,十分有用。后来各个朝代的铜钱都仿照秦朝的样式。
In the Warring States Period, linear measures differed from state to state. Qinshihuang set fixed standards for length, volume and weight, which propelled the development of the economy. The Qin Dynasty also issued a uniform currency. Round coins with a square hole in the middle were used all over China, and set the pattern for the coins of later dynasties.

文化 上第一,统一文字。战国 时期

,各国的文字也都不一样。秦始皇下令统一文字,把简化了的字体小篆作为标准字体,通令全国使用。接着,又出现了一种比小篆书写更简便的字体——隶书。现在的楷书,就是从隶书演化来的。文字的统一,促进了文化的交流。第二,焚书坑儒,加强思想控制。公元前213年,丞相李斯认为,人们读了古书上的各种观点后,会用那些观点批评时事,这样会不利于朝廷的统治。所以他建议,民间除了医药、种植等书以外,其余的书,尤其是各国史书及诸子书籍应全部烧掉。秦始皇采纳 了他的建议 。第二年,一些读书人背后议论秦始皇专横武断,滥施刑罚。秦始皇加以追查,最后活埋了460多人。这两件事,史称“焚书坑儒”。
Of great significance for the development of communication and culture was the standardization of Chinese characters. The first reform of the characters resulted in the seal script (zhuan). Then, the official script (lishu), a simplified version of the seal script, was devised. Today's regular script (kaishu) developed from the official script. In 213 BC, Qinshihuang's prime minister, Li Si, had all books, except for those on medicine and agriculture, burned, in order to strengthen the regime's ideological control of the people. To further guard against dissent, the emperor had 460 Confucian scholars buried alive.

军事上击败匈奴,修筑长城,安定了北方;在南方,使越族归顺,扩大了民族交往
To curb the incessant invasions of the Hun (Xiongnu) nomads in the north, the Qin Dynasty set about building the Great Wall by linking up already existing defensive walls that had been built by various states. In the south, Qinshihuang subdued the Yue people.

秦始皇完成统一大业,结束了长期以来诸侯割据称雄的局面,建立了中国历史上第一个统一的多民族的封建国家。秦朝的疆域,东到大海,西到陇西,北到长城一带,南到南海,人口达到2,000多万。但秦始皇又是暴君,他的残暴统治也对中国历史产生了不良影响
Qinshihuang established the first united multi-ethnic feudal country on Chinese soil. Qin's territory, embracing over 20 million people, reached the Pacific in the east, Longxi (west of the Longshan Mountains) in the west, the Great Wall in the north and the South China Sea in the south. However, to achieve this, Qinshihuang had to resort to tyrannical methods.

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