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文化慢读:孔子 Confucius(图)

http://www.chinesecio.com 2010年09月27日 07:01 网络孔子学院

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孔子,姓孔,名丘,字仲尼。公元 前551年,出生于春秋后期的鲁国(现在山东省南)。孔子的父亲叔梁纥是有名的武士,建过两次战功,并拥有自己的封地。孔子的父亲在他三岁时去世,他的母亲颜征在是孔子父亲的小妾,为了避免孔子父亲正室夫人虐待他们母子,只能带着孔子离开封地。因此,童年的孔子和母亲清苦

度日。受母亲的支持 和鼓励,孔子勤奋

好学。在他17岁的时候,他的母亲由于劳累

过度、体弱多病而去世。三年以后,孔子迎娶了宋国丌官氏家族的一个年轻的女子。虽然孔子有一个爱他且温和的妻子,他还是离开了他的家,去为他的学说而奋斗。孔子试图恢复

周朝鼎盛时期的华夏文明,建立一个伟大的、和谐的、以人为本的社会。


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Kong Qiu, as Confucius is commonly known, is a combination of his surname and his given name, and he was also known as Zhong Ni, which is his courtesy name. He was born in 551 BC in the Lu state (This state was in the southwest of modern-day Shandong Province) in the later days of the Spring and Autumn Period. Confucius was from a warrior family. His father Shulianghe was a famous warrior who had military exploits in two battles and owned a fiefdom. Confucius lost his father when he was three years old, and then his mother Yan Zhengzai took him and left the fiefdom because as a concubine, she wanted to avoid mistreatment from Shulianghe's formal wife. Thus, Confucius lived in poverty with his mother since childhood. With the support and encouragement of his mother, Confucius was very diligent in his studies. When Confucius was seventeen years old, his mother died as a result of illness and overwork. Three years later, Confucius married a young woman who was from the Qiguan family of the Song state. Though he had a mild tempered wife who loved him, he left his family to strive for his ideals. Confucius sought to revive the perfect virtue of Huaxia (Chinese civilization) and the classical properties of the Western Zhou Dynasty to build a great, harmonious and humanistic society.

孔子的哲学强调个人与统治集团的道德

,社会关系的合理性,以及公正

真诚

。这些价值观在中国相较其他学说如汉朝时期(公元前
206-公元220)的法家和道家,更受到重视

。孔子的学说已经被发展成为一个哲学理论体系——儒家思想。该思想被意大利耶稣信徒利玛窦传到欧洲,利玛窦是第一个用拉丁语翻译孔子名字的人。
His philosophy emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. These values gained prominence in China over other doctrine, such as Legalism or Taoism during the Han Dynasty (206 BC 220 AD). Confucius' thoughts have been developed into a system of philosophy known as Confucianism. It was introduced to Europe by the Italian Jesuit Matteo Ricci, who was the first to Latinise the name as "Confucius."

在孔子去世很多年后完成的记录孔子言行

的《论语

》保存了孔子的学说理论。大约在
2000多年前,孔子就被认为是编撰

五经

”的人,比如《礼记

》和《春秋

》。
His teachings may be found in the Analects of Confucius, a collection of "brief aphoristic fragments", which was compiled many years after his death. For nearly 2,000 years he was thought to be the editor or author of all the Five Classics such as the Classic of Rites (editor), and the Spring and Autumn Annals (author).

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