首页 > 人物频道 > 历史 > 古代 > 文化慢读:刘邦和项羽 Liu Bang and Xiang Yu

文化慢读:刘邦和项羽 Liu Bang and Xiang Yu

http://www.chinesecio.com 2010年09月10日 10:14 网络孔子学院

字号:

陈胜、吴广起义失败以后,刘邦和项羽继续领导农民反抗

统治 公元 前207年,项羽以少胜多,在巨鹿(今河北平乡西南)大败秦军主力。同时,刘邦带兵直逼咸阳。秦朝统治者向刘邦投降

,秦朝灭亡


听读练习Listening and Reading
音频下载 Download

After the uprising led by Chen Sheng and Wu Guang failed, Liu Bang and Xiang Yu continued to lead peasants against the Qin Dynasty. In 207 BC, Xiang Yu with a small force routed the main body of the Qin army at Julu (southwest of today's Pingxiang in Hebei Province). At the same time, Liu Bang's peasant army pressed on toward Xianyang, and forced the abdication of the second Qin emperor.

秦朝灭亡以后,项羽自称为西楚霸王,封刘邦为汉王。自公元前206年开始,项羽和刘邦为争做皇帝,进行了将近4年的战争

历史 上称为“楚汉战争”。战争初期,项羽实力雄厚,有40万大军;刘邦只有10万人。但是刘邦关注民心,进驻咸阳时,宣布

废除

秦朝的严酷法律

,向老百姓“约法三章”——杀人的要被处死,打伤人以及偷盗都有罪;刘邦还很重视

人才,得到萧何、张良、韩信等人帮助

。另外,刘邦有富饶的关中作为根据地,因此 ,刘邦率领的汉军逐渐由弱变强。相反,项羽骄傲

自大,不听取意见

,放任士兵烧杀抢掠,大失民心。
Xiang Yu then proclaimed himself King of Western Chu, and made Liu Bang King of Han. From 206 BC, Xiang Yu and Liu Bang fought for rule of the empire for nearly four years, in what historians call the "War between Chu and Han". At the beginning of the war, Xiang Yu had an army of 400,000, whereas Liu Bang's forces numbered only 100,000. But Liu Bang won the support of the common people by abolishing the draconian laws and decrees of the Qin Dynasty, and enforcing strict discipline on his troops. In addition, he had the assistance of able officials like Xiao He, Zhang Liang and Han Xin. Occupying the rich and fertile central Shaanxi plain, the Han army led by Liu Bang gradually grew stronger. Xiang Yu, in contrast, was arrogant, and his army was lawless. Wherever they went they lost the support of the people.

公元前202年,刘邦率大军攻打项羽,在垓(ɡāi)下(今安徽省境内)把项羽的楚军重重包围。夜里,项羽听到汉军军营中的楚歌从四面八方传来,十分吃惊

,以为楚的地方全被汉军占领了,项羽悲痛地与虞姬(项羽的妾)诀别

,率领800多骑兵突围逃走。汉军紧追不舍,形势十分危急,项羽被迫在乌江(今安徽和县东北)自杀。
In 202 BC, the Han army besieged the Chu army in Gaixia (in today's Anhui Province). Xiang Yu escaped the encirclement with a small force, but was trapped at the Wujiang River (in the northeast of today's Hexian County in Anhui Province), and committed suicide.

刘邦战胜项羽后,建立

汉朝,定都长安(今西安西北),国号“汉”,历史上称为西汉 。刘邦就是汉高祖。
Liu Bang then established the Han Dynasty, with Chang'an (in the northwest of today's Xi'an) as the capital.

  Next Page for Vocabulary